Jharkhand is situated in the eastern part of India. Jharkhand means “The land of forests” as 29% of the state is covered by ‘jhars’ (forests) and woodlands. It is the 28th State of the Indian Union. It’s bordering states are Bihar to the North, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the West, Orissa to the South and West Bengal to the East.
The demand for a separate State of ”Vananchal” or granting autonomy to ”Greater Jharkhand” kept lingering for a long time but was put off due to various reasons. Jharkhand was a part of the southern part of Bihar but was formed as a separate state on 15 November, 2000. This day of 15 November also marks the birth anniversary of Birsa Munda who was an important leader of the tribals of Chota Nagpur region and was considered as ‘bhagwan’ by his followers.
The Capital city of Jharkhand is Ranchi which is an industrial hub. Ranchi Airport connects important cities of Patna, New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. Jharkhand comprises of 24 Districts, 212 Blocks and 32,620 villages. Jharkhand is located on Chota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas and is endowed with evergreen forests and mineral wealth. It covers an area of 79,714 sq kms.
The State boasts of richness not only in terms of mineral wealth, but also in terms of culture, languages spoken, festivals celebrated, tourism spots, waterfalls, folk music and dances. Around 32 tribal communities are there in Jharkhand which include Santhals, Mundas, Oraons, Hos, Asur, Bathudi, Bedia, Banjara and Baiga among others. Languages spoken are Hindi, Urdu, Magahi, Khortha, and Nagpuri.
Jharkhand is a new State and it is steadily progressing towards achieving new frontiers in almost every field. The State has abundance of natural resources. Dhanbad, Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Bokaro are industrial hubs. Evergreen forests, rivers, adequate availability of power and water and some of the premier educational institutions find place in this State. Air, rail and road connectivity is satisfactory for traveling and carrying out business and is being modernised. And last but not the least, Jharkhand is known for its scenic beauty and rich tribal culture. The age old tribal traditions and the new age Industrial development is what makes Jharkhand so unique.
There are three well-defined seasons in Jharkhand. The cold-weather season, from November to February, is the most pleasant part of the year. High temperatures in Ranchi in December usually rise from about 50 °F (10 °C) into the low 70s F (low 20s C) daily. The hot-weather season lasts from March to mid-June. May, the hottest month, is characterized by daily high temperatures in the upper 90s F (about 37 °C) and low temperatures in the mid-70s F (mid-20s C).
Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Asian Elephants.
Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:
- Red soil, found mostly in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area
- Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumri Telaiya, Barkagaon, and areas around the Mandar hil
- Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad
- Black soil, found in Rajmahal area
- Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu, and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum